Arweave & AR.IO: The Two DePINs Behind AO

AO computer, the super computer on top of Arweave, combines Erlang-style concurrency with decentralized storage to create parallel computing that can scale.

New worlds of horizontal scaling in AO await, but none of it could happen without a pair of DePIN (Decentralized Physical Infrastructure Networks) projects that underpin AO.

Enter Arweave and AR.IO.

Arweave’s permanent data protocol is built on a global network of decentralized nodes that are responsible for mining and permanently storing AO data.

AR.IO is a decentralized network of incentivized gateways that is responsible for indexing, caching and serving the permanent data from the Arweave blockchain.

AO computer is able to achieve hyper parallel processing because it leverages the benefits of these robust infrastructure networks.

Want to be part of the DePINs that support the AO computer? Let’s see how you can get involved:

Arweave: The Permanent Data Storage DePIN

As Sam Williams mentioned in his AO Launch video, “none of this would have been possible without the past 6 years of perfecting permanent data” through Arweave.

Permanent data is:

  • onchain

  • censorship-resistant and tamper-proof

  • composable and permissionless

  • built with developers in mind

Since AO launched, the amount of transactions on Arweave has soared:

All this new data must go somewhere, and that is where Arweave mining comes in.

What is Arweave mining?

Arweave mining process is designed to incentivize and optimize replication of data stored on the network. This is done through a method involving Succinct Proofs of Random Access (SPoRAs), which are created and tested in large numbers every time a new block of data is added to the network.

The main goal for miners is to store as much data as possible. This increases their chances of having the specific piece of data needed for the mining process, allowing them to successfully create blocks and earn rewards.

Rewards come from a few sources: transaction fees, new AR tokens generated by the network (block rewards), and a special protocolized endowment. The more data a miner stores, the better their chances of earning these rewards, as they are more likely to pass the mining process's final check.

In essence, Arweave mining is a balance between using computer power (CPU) and storing large amounts of data. The mining process encourages miners to replicate as much data as possible, ensuring the network's robustness and reliability.

This unique approach to mining not only secures the network but also incentivizes the widespread distribution of data across the network.

What are the requirements to start Arweave mining?

  • Ryzen or ARM (good RandomX, SHA extensions)

  • RAM 8 GB + 400 MB per mining partition (4 TB drive) - See the Mining Guide | Arweave Docs

  • HBA (host bus adapter) for many HDD

  • Lots of HDD (4 TB (200 MB/s), 8 TB (400 MB/s)) - do not use RAID

  • PSU with lots of connectors for HDD

  • Total 160 TB recommended for future proof (can be at multiple machines)

Learn more about Arweave Mining

For a detailed guide and access to the mining community please see the following:

Arweave Mining Guide: Mining Guide | Arweave Docs

Arweave Mining Discord: Join the Arweave Miners Discord Server!


AR.IO: The Permanent Data Gateway DePIN

AR.IO has developed a decentralized and incentivized infrastructure so gateway operators and developers can interact with permanent data on Arweave.

These new decentralized gateways will not only provide an incentive for the data to be served, but will also level up network performance so modern apps have the fast downloading, data indexing, and robust querying they need to be viable.

What are the requirements to run an AR.IO gateway?

The requirements for an AR.IO gateway provide an easier point of entry for people to get involved. Get setup on your Raspberry Pi or laptop in as little as 15–30 minutes, so long as your device has:

  • 4 core CPU

  • 4 GB Ram

  • 500 GB storage (SSD recommended)

  • Stable 50 Mbps internet connection

  • Arweave wallet - available on

  • A minimum requirement of IO Tokens for staking

Incentives for AR.IO Gateways

  1. Gateway Rewards - Operators who run a reliable AR.IO gateways are rewarded for their contributions to the network

  2. Observer Rewards - Observers evaluate their gateway peers' performance to resolve ArNS names, and get rewarded based on performance metrics

  3. Staking Rewards - Stake your IO tokens to an AR.IO gateway (that accepts delegated staking) and you can receive a share of the rewards that gateway receives. This makes it possible to obtain IO rewards without operating a gateway.

  4. Charge Fees - Gateway operators are free to charge their users whatever fee they wish. But note that other gateway operators will be offering their services as well, so find your niche and price accordingly.

How to get started with AR.IO

Learn more about operating an AR.IO Gateway: